- purposive sampling: because the target population is defined in the experiment and has already decided which criteria should be used for sampling
- convenience sampling: the researcher can go to a football game and simply ask some audience if they would like to participate.
- how to eliminate the participants to only football fans
- provide sufficient details about issues that may potentially bias the investigation
- make the researcher aware of his or her own contribution to the construction of meaning in the research process.
- this approach take in to the account of the elements in researcher’s that may affect the experiment outcome.