page 350:

  • purposive sampling: because the target population is defined in the experiment and has already decided which criteria should be used for sampling
  • convenience sampling: the  researcher can go to a football game and simply ask some audience if they would like to participate.
  • how to eliminate the participants to only football fans

page 353:

    1. provide sufficient details about issues that may potentially bias the investigation
    2.  make the researcher aware of his or her own contribution to the construction of meaning in the research process.
  1. this approach take in to the account of the elements in researcher’s that may affect the experiment outcome.